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Before starting the treatment, the causes of a disease must be ascertained and examined thoroughly. That would help to understand the nature of disease, and suggest the right line of treatment.

It is observed that there are five major hurdles in learning English as a Second Language which are, usually, faced by the English language aspirants:

1. Confusing English grammar.

2. Poor knowledge of right words.

3. Translation.

4. Lack of exposure.

1. Confusing English grammar

A thorough study of traditional English grammar suggests that it is more confusing than comprehensive. Most of the grammar rules are progressively discarded one after the other when a student reaches to the peak of the language with acceptable good command over written and spoken English. Interestingly, confusion continues to prevail right from Ist standard to post graduate level.

2) Poor knowledge of right words

The poor knowledge of right words is also a crucial problem. Neither he is able to understand the written expressions nor speak or write correctly. In fact, the secret of good English lies in the knowledge of standardised words or expressions, and all kinds of meanings of a word. If you don’t know the standardised expression and all kinds of meanings of a word, you will be totally a failure in English language.

3) Standardised expression

Grammatically speaking each word has got a specific place and purpose in a sentence. It’s use in a sentence must be correct syntactically as well as semantically. The expression which is widely used by English speaking society in a particular context can be called standardised expression. If you

don’t use that expression in the same context, your English will be considered as poor. The knowledge of standardised expressions comes from exposure. The reading and hearing are the modes which help in learning the standardised expressions. The poor or no knowledge of standardised expressions is a big hurdle in learning English as a second language.

3. Translation

Translation is the common pitfall for second language learner. When they are not able to get the right word/expression, they tend to indulge in literal translation of their thoughts which, usually, comes in mother tongue, into English. Two languages may be same at thought level, but at word level they may require all together different expression in their respective languages e.g.

1. He drinks cigarette-(incorrect) (it is literal translation of Hindi vo bidi peeta hai)

2. He smokes cigarette-(correct )

4) Lack of exposure

Whether it is mother tongue or the second language, exposure is inevitable to have a command over the language. In the absence of exposure, mind tends to pick up something without understanding it properly. It leads to confusion, and state of no-confidence.

In case of English as a second language, exposure helps to know the standardised expressions. lt also provides an opportunity to practise the acquired knowledge. The company of the people who speak English, helps you to check your own knowledge of English; it helps you to know the common and standardised expressions, it provides you an opportunity to interact, and practise your English on somebody.

Thus, lack of exposure is big impediment in learning English. Mind you, people are the right source of learning a language.

Thank you for being so patient and give a pat on your back as a reward by author yaman kumar

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